Tramadol is used in medicine as a potent analgesic drug, also available only by prescription and only in certain pharmacies. According to experts, in some cases, the drug helps patients better than morphine. During his illegal sale of criminal liability, as well as the sale of drugs. Also, Tramadol used by heroin addicts to relieve some of the break-up.
Tramadol – synthetic analgesic belongs to the group of opioids, has an effect on the central nervous system and spinal cord, causing hyperpolarization of membranes and holding braking pain impulses. It gives a powerful analgesic effect that lasts a long time. Activates the opiate receptors in the brain and the gastrointestinal tract. It slows down the destruction and to stabilize the concentration of catecholamines in the central nervous system.
The drug Tramadol – selective agonist of the mu-opioid receptor, selectively inhibiting the reverse neuronal uptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. Analgesic effect of Tramadol, at the same doses 5-10 times weaker than morphine.
Subject to the dosage specified in the instructions, Tramadol does not have a significant effect on respiration and hemodynamics, does not change the parameters of pressure in the pulmonary artery, no significant inhibitory effect on intestinal motility.
It has a sedative and mild antitussive effect. When long-term therapy is probably the development of tolerance. The analgesic effect occurs within 15-30 minutes after the internal use of the drug and continues to operate up to 6 hours.
After taking, the drug is about 90% absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract. Maximum concentration in plasma Tramadol attained within two hours after administration. In single dose of the drug, the bioavailability is 68%, and increases as the application.
The drug binds to the plasma protein at 20%. Tramadol can pass through the placental barrier in similar concentrations in plasma concentration. It metabolized metabolites to 11, of which one is active. Displayed 10% through the intestines and kidneys 90%.
Indications for use of Tramadol
Tramadol is used in severe to moderate inflammatory pain sensation, traumatic and vascular etiology. When conducting diagnostic or therapeutic procedures associated with painful sensations. And also in the postoperative period, and patients with cancer. use of the drug is not recommended for the weak pain.
Contraindications to the use of Tramadol
Tramadol is not recommended for children under 1 year (parenteral administration) and children up to 14 years (domestic adoption). It should be used with caution in patients with Tramadol: addiction, confusion, intracranial hypertension, brain injuries, epileptic syndromes (cerebral origin), abdominal pain of unknown origin.
Tramadol should not be used to treat the syndrome of “cancellation” of drugs. Not available in conjunction with ethanol. When single application permitted not to interrupt breastfeeding. During therapy should use caution to persons engaged in potentially hazardous work, including driving motor vehicles.
Interaction with other drugs
Tramadol incompatible with solutions of diclofenac, indomethacin, diazepam, nitroglycerin, phenylbutazone, flunitrazepam. It enhances the effect of drugs which depress the central nervous system, and ethanol.
With prolonged use of barbiturates or opioids is the development of cross-tolerance. When combined with barbiturates taking Tramadol reviews show amplification of anesthetic action. In combination with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, furazolidone, procarbazine and antipsihotropnymi means a reduction in seizure threshold and the risk of developing convulsions.